Articulation Disorders:  include difficulties producing sounds in syllables or saying words incorrectly to the point that other people cannot understand what is being said.

Language Disorders: can be either receptive or expressive:

  1. Receptive disorders refer to difficulties understanding or processing language.
  2. Expressive disorders include difficulty putting words together, limited vocabulary, or inability to use language in a socially appropriate way.

Fluency Disorders: include problems such as stuttering, the condition in which the flow of speech is interrupted by abnormal stoppages, repetitions (st-st-stuttering), or prolonging sounds and syllables (ssssstuttering).

Voice Disorder: include problems with the pitch, volume, or quality of the voice that distract listeners from what is being said. These types of disorders may also cause pain or discomfort for the child when speaking.

Dysphagia or Feeding Disorders:  including difficulties with eating and swallowing.

• Therapy should begin as soon as possible. Children enrolled in therapy early in their development (younger than 3 years) tend to have better outcomes and success than those who begin therapy later.

• This does not mean that older kids can't make progress in therapy; they may progress at a slower rate because they often have learned patterns that need to be changed.

• Speech-language experts agree that parental involvement is crucial to the success of a child's progress in speech or language therapy.

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